Wednesday, December 15, 2010

Single and Double Replacement Labs

Alright, so today in class we went over the double and single replacement labs that we did with Mr. Tucker Monday. If you missed it you should have the papers in your journal but if not, there are copies on the back counter of the classroom. Tonight our homework is to review the quiz that we took on Friday, and correct any mistakes that we might have made. Above I've posted pictures from the board and those are the answers from the chemical reactions lab that we went over in class today.For a review, single reactions replace a single uncombined element replaces another in a compound. Two reactants yield two products.
<span class=width="300">
In a double replacement reaction, parts of two compounds switch places to form two new compounds.
<span class=doublereplaceimage" align="baseline" height="28" width="378">
Also, don't forget to balance!

By Corey L.

Thursday, December 9, 2010

scribe post December 9

Today in Chemistry Mrs. M told us to not talk and be obnoxious when she is talking. Then she told us she got the presents for the little kids, after that we went over page 18 in our journal which was our homework, and the class seemed to understand it very well. After page 18 we went onto page 19, and learned about predicting products, using the reactions, synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, double replacement, and combustion. To predict the product you first have to find what type of reaction it is, then you have to create the product by the different reaction rules, and finally when you have your product you simply balance the equation. We did numerous problems to practice our new topic. After that Mrs. M assigned page 20 for homework, and she gave us time to start it. All in all it was a blast!

By Simone K

Monday, November 22, 2010

Scride Post Nov 22 Per. 5

Monday November 22, 2010

We started chemistry class today by picking up Polarity Olympics: The Games sheets and getting Polarity of Molecules 2 (pg 26) stamped. Before starting the lab we learned that polar molecules are molecules that have both a positive and negative side like water. Also, intermolecular forces are when the attraction is weaker than the bonds that hold it together, but is strong enough to affect the properties of water. We then started the Polarity Olympics lab which had two parts, The Trials and The Games.

The Trials:

Trial 1- The Penny Pile-on: In this trial each liquid will try to create as large a pile on a penny as possible.

Trial 2- The Capillary Tube Climb: In this trial each liquid will try to climb as high as possible in a vertical glass tube.

Trial 3- The Marker Clean Up: In this trial each liquid will try to clean two types of marker from glass.

The Games:

Part 1- Solubility: In this part we each liquid was added to water to see if they would mix.

Part 2- Volatility and Surface Tension: In this part each liquid was ranked in its ability to spread on a table and evaporate.

Finish Polarity Olympics Lab
Study for Lab Test

Thursday, November 18, 2010

Thursday November 18

Yesterday we started the class by picking up pages 21-25 plus another sheet. After picking up the pages, we all sat down for class. Some of the people did not finish building their molecules from two days ago so we then took the time to do that. Mrs. M went around stamping like crazy. After we finished the lab, we did page 20. When we completed 20 we started polar and nonpolar covalent bonding. One of the sheets we got was a periodic tables with a bunch of numbers with the different elements. We got half way through page 21. The rest of it was for homework

Today we started class by picking up 4 pages. After we all settled down we started on the different types of bonds. There are three kinds of bonds; Polar covalent, non-polar covalent and ionic. A polar bond is when one electron has a stronger electronegativity than the other in the bond and holds the electron closer to it's nucleus. Non-polar covalent bonding is when the electron being shared is evenly distributed between the two atoms. An ionic bond is when the pull from one atom is so strong that it rips the electron from an other atom. To find out what kind of bond the molecule has you take the electronegativity of the two atoms and subtract the bigger one from the smaller one. If the difference is less than or equal to 0.4 the bond is non-polar covalent. If the difference is 1.7 or higher the bond is ionic. Anything inbetween those is polar covalent. After learning this we went through and did pages 22-25.

Homework: Page 26 and webassigns & chemthink if you have not finished them

Tuesday, November 16, 2010

The 16th of November, 2010

Today, in Chemistry 163 Period 5, we began class by getting our previous homework checked (pages 18 and 19, a.k.a. Molecular Shapes 2&3) and stamped. Mrs. M asked us if we needed explanation on anything, and we did a few examples from the pages. (For answers, please refer to the photos...sorry if quality is bad. Remember: you do have the VSEPR sheet to refer to for more answers!)
page 18:
page 19:
After that, we continued on to our next activity: Molecular
Geometry - the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms that constitute a molecule. We used the packet that consisted of rows of molecules and columns of the Lewis Structure, # of Atoms on central (refer to the gold VSEPR sheet for the #/#/# answers), # of Lone pairs, Shape, 3D Picture, and Stamp (from Mrs. M).

We used wooden spheres, sticks, and springs to create 3D molecules during class. If you did not finish or get them all checked, please finish the work tonight for homework, and we will have time in class tomorrow to finish creating them. Enjoy the late arrival tomorrow! But do your homework!

  • finish Molecular Geometry packet
  • ^remember to answer the questions on the 2nd page!
Sorry Mrs. M for getting you off track with the Scribe Posts-- it won't happen again.

Kiva T.

Tuesday, November 9, 2010

Lewis Structures – November 9th 2010

      When we first walked into class today, we picked up pages 9-15. Then, Mrs. M stamped our page #6 (the homework assigned yesterday). Once everyone was settled again, we went over all the answers to page 6. These answers can be found on Moodle!
                  WARNING!: Tomorrow is the beginning of a streak of 6 quizzes! The quiz tomorrow will be seeing if you can tell the difference between and Ionic and Covalent compound, and if you can name each of them.                  
Makes compounds
Transfers electrons
Made with metals and nonmetals
Positive and negative charges
Weak bonds!!
Ex: NaCl
Makes molecules
Shares electrons to be noble
Made of ONLY nonmetals
Neutral charges
Strong bonds!!!
Ex: H₂O

                  Next, we did pages 7, 8, 10, & 11. You may read page 9 at your own leisure, as it only describes how to create a Lewis structure. Mrs. M knows 2 ways to figure out how to create Lewis Structures. She began to teach us the first way, (described on page 9) and the taught us “her way”. On our periodic tables, we added the amount of valance electrons. Under the first family we put 1, indicating there is 1 valance electron on all the above atoms. 2nd family we put 2, 13th we put 3, 14th we put 4, 15th we put 5, 16th we put 6, 17th we put 7, and 18th we put 8, indicating that these atoms are stable.


                  -Consult the molecular formula and sum up all the valence electrons from the separate atoms.
                  - Choose central atom
                  - The first element in the compound becomes the central atom (excluding hydrogen).
                  -Insert pairs of electrons between all pairs of atoms that are to be bonded together
                  -Place any remaining electrons on peripheral atoms as unshared pairs, starting with the most                   electronegative such atom.

Mrs. M began teaching us “her way” of drawing Lewis Structures. This method includes NHS (Needed; Have; and Shared electrons.)
                  First you take the amount of atoms in the compound (excluding Hydrogen) and multiply                   it by 8 electrons which results in the amount of electrons NEEDED to have a stable compound.
                  Then, you fine the amount of valance electrons you have. Look at the charge of the atom that we listed at the bottom of the periodic table and add them all up to equal the amount of electrons you have in that particular compound.
                  Lastly, you subtract the amount of electrons you have from the amount needed. This resulting number is the amount of electrons that need to be shared between the atoms.

FOR EXAMPLE: (done in class)
                  Take the compound NF₃. The amount of atoms in this compound is 3. 1 Nitrogen and 3 Fluorine’s. You multiply 4 by 8 to get the amount of electrons needed to create a stable compound.

4 x 8 = 32

                  Next you find the amount of electrons you have. There are 5 valance electrons in Nitrogen, and 7 in Fluorine. Remember, there are 3 Fluorine atoms!!! Add all the valance electrons together to get the amount of electrons there are.

5 + 7 + 7 + 7 = 26

                  Finally, you would subtract 26 from 32 to find the shared electrons.

32 – 26 = 6 electrons

                  Since N is the first atom used, it would become the central atom. You write N in the middle of the space provided. There are 3 fluorine atoms so you draw 3 F’s on 3 sides of the N. Because there are 6 electrons being shared, you draw a line from the N to each F. Each atom needs 8 total electrons to become stable. To show the addition of the last 2 atoms to N, you would put 2 dots on the last side unoccupied by the lines. Finally, you need to make each F atom stable. You add 2 dots on each side left on the F, to create 8 electrons on each atom.

                  HOMEWORK! Finish the 2nd column of page 11.

Annika S

Monday, November 8, 2010

Monday November 8th. Covalent Bonds.

   Today as we walked into class we were greeted by 8 new sheets to add to our notebooks. They are about Covalent Bonding. If you weren't here (or just forget) last Friday we were in the Math Lab doing the covalent bonding Chemthink. We also have 2 Webassigns due November 24th on Covalent Bonding (Chapeter 5). 
  During class we completed pages 2-5 of our new sheets. Page 1 is optional extra credit for which you have to go back to the Chemthink and get your answers from that. If you were absent the answers for pages 2-5 are as follows:

Pg. 2:
1. a) decrease, increase, P-e-1 attraction. Attraction=bonding=stability
    b) increases, decreases, P-P repulsion. Repulsion=longer bond=less stable

Pg. 3:
2. inversely, increase, decrease
3. a) increases as it goes down the periodic table and decreases as it goes across. 
    b) increases as it goes down because as you add more shielding electrons there is a weaker pull from the nucleus.

Pg. 4: 
-write the 1st element
   *add the appropriate prefix with the exception of mono
-write the name of the second element 
   *drop ending and add -ide
   *add appropriate prefix

dinitrogen pentoxide: N2O5
carbon tetrachloride: CCl4
nitrogen dioxide: NO2
sulfur dioxide: SO2
phosphorus pentaflouride: PF5
nitrogen monoxide: NO
sulfur trioxide: SO3
nitrogen triflouride: NF3
boron trisulfide: BS3
carbon dioxide: CO2
nirtogen triiodide: NI3
carbon tetrabromide: CBr4

Pg. 5:

1. NaO3.....I......sodium nitrate
2. Al2O3.....I......aluminum oxide
3. PCl5.....C......phosphorus pentachloride
4. IF3....C.....iodine triflouride
5. LiOH.....I....lithium hydroxide
6. Ba(NO3)2.....I.....barium nitrate
7. SrBr2......I.......strontium bromide
8. Cu2S......I....copper (I) sulfide
9. N2O5.......C.......dinitrogen pentoxide
10. Fe3N2.....I......iron (II) nitride
11. CO......C......carbon monoxide

We also went over the Ionic Bonding Quest in class today. Remember to take it if you haven't already and if you have questions see Mrs. M. 

Again, Homework:

Webassigns (November 24th)
Page 6 (November 9th/tomorrow)
Page 1 (Extra Credit) (November 9th/tomorrow)

Wednesday, November 3, 2010


On Tuesday, November 2nd, wewent over a quick review on Ionic Bonding and then proceeded to learn/review how to name Ionic Compounds. The process is as follows:
  • Write the name of the cation(positive metal ion)
  • Write the name of the antion (negative non-metal ion)
- Drop the ending and add -ide* (ex: calcium Chloride)

*If a polyatomic ion is formed, look up the name. (ex: NaNO3= Sodium Nitrate)

*If transition metals are involved, determine the amount of electrons lost, and use roman numerals to indicate the charge in the name (ex:FeCl2= Iron (II) Chloride)

We then proceeded to finish the third column of the table on pages 7 and 8, and then we worked on pages 11, 12, 13, and 14 in our composition notebooks as a class. As we did not get to finish page 14, it was assigned as homework, along with our Webassigns and the Chemthink. As a reminder, we have a Quest on this unit on Thursday.

Monday, November 1, 2010

Ionic Bonding

We started class by collecting some worksheets at the front table. The worksheets were pages 9, 10, and 11. Mrs. Mandarino also gave us new Periodic Tables that have new information on them that should be helpful to us. REMINDER. SCRIBE POST ARE GRADED, SO IF THEY ARE ASSIGNED, PLEASE DO THEM. After that, we went over Thursday's homework (worksheet pages 4 and 5). Not many people did the homework though, so Mrs. Mandarino stamped it for extra credit. Pages 4 and 5 were about Ionic Formulas and Forming Ionic Compounds.
Ionic Formulas:
We went over how to make a formula based from a pair of Ions.
Ex. K+ and O2-
There are three ways to do this, Common Sense, Common Denominator and Criss-Cross.
Essentially, K+ and O2- will become K2O


We are always trying to pair up the ions so that they will be neutral.
If there are a group of ions and you need to choose which should go together, choose the two that will have opposite charges and will "cancel" each other out.
Ex. Na+ S2-, I-, Zn2+
Na+ and I- should go together because one ion has a +1 charge while the other has -1 charge. Their opposite charges will cancel each other out (which is our goal).

After we went over the homework/extra credit, we (as a class) did pages 6 and 7 together.
6 was also about forming ionic compounds, but 7 was about Polyatomic Ions.

Polyatomic Ions
  • Poly=Many
  • Atomic=Atom
  • Ions made up of many atoms
  • ex: NO3 -1
  • There are many negative Polyatomic Ions bu only one positive Polyatomic Ion.
  • NH4 +1

Polyatomic Ions are always written in a specific order. The positive part is written first and then the negative part is after.

Cation: Positive Ion. You can remember this by the t in cation. The t looks like a + for positive.

Anion: Negative Ion. You can remember this by the n in anion. N stands for negative.

Also, the new periodic tables that we metioned before have names of some polyatomic ions which is the updated part.

The homework was the rest of page 7 and page 8. For the homework, we haven't learned the names part yet, so that part doesn't need to be done. As always webassign is homework.

Have a good weekend and Happy Halloween!!

Wednesday, October 20, 2010

scribe post for october the 21st

Today in the ancient study of chemistry and potions our professor began the class by demonstrating an experiment. She took a small chunk of (pronounce the British way) Aluminum, Magnesium and Calcium and placed them in the mystic substance known in some regions of Tibet as water. The Aluminum and Magnesium were boring and didn’t do anything yet the Calcium was nice and put on a show. It bubbled and oxidized the piece of calcium. After the pieces of metal were added to the water she added magic potion known as Phenolphthalein which would mutate the water and turn it a pinkish hue if a base was present. For all three metals the test was positive and a base was found. After we tested for a base we placed the three pieces of the same type of metals into the substance discovered by the voodoo men of thirteenth century Europe, HCL, or hydrochloric acid. The aluminum was once again boring and there were no visible changes however the magnesium bubbled and the calcium bubbled vigorously. We then once again placed the magic potion into the small trays containing the metals to test for the existence of a base and only Calcium was positive. The conclusion of the lab was that the dull metals that the king refused to where on his crown were more reactive. This could be told because the react with the air and tarnish where as the other metals do not

After the potions and magic display we went over the assignment that was due that day. Our professor went over the periodic table work sheet pages two and three. These pages can be found in the town market know as Moodle. The main points in the pages were that families of mystic elements are more closely related then periods, and that the electron configuration is what determines the group’s reactivity. After we finished going through that sheet we began our journey through the magical world of ionization energy. In short it is the amount of energy needed to remove one electron form one atom however the amount of energy needed is not constant. For example it takes very little energy to take an electron form an Alkali metal where as it takes a lot of energy to take an electron from a Nobel gas. If you need to know more about ionization energy travel through the wormhole and check out these websites

After we finished the sheet on ionization energy it was time to leave the mystic land of test tubes and Bunsen burners

The last announcement is that mole day will be celebrated in the east gym on Oct 22 at 6:02 am, if you go you will receive 6.02 points of extra credit and bring cans for the caned food drive

That is all the information this electronic message devise has to offer now go on your way and enjoy the wonderful world of chemistry

Tuesday, October 19, 2010

Periodic Trends

October 19, 2010
The day started off not in our usual setting, but rather in the math lab. We all took our seats and grabbed two sheets that were the Periodicity Lab. We then completed the second half of the notes about Periodic Trends. We learned that the atomic radius increases as you move down through the elements in each group. Also the atomic size decreases from left to right across a period. Another thing new was sheilding electrons (blockers). They are the electrons between necleus and outer electrons. The notes can be found on moodle. After we finished that we followed the lab and created two different graphs. One was compare Atomic number vs. Atomis Radius and the other was comparing Atomic number vs. Ionization Energy. Both were supposed to finished and printed and ready to bring them tomorrow for class. The homework was to do pages 1-3 and work on webassigns, and thanks to Kiva I had a little extra and do this because she was mad my rock paper scissor skills were better. It was another great day of chemistry.

Kaitlin Samuels

Before I depart from the scribe world, I would like to take a minute to send my thanks and recognition to Chris J. I was extremely baffled when I logged into moodle today. I had no idea what I was doing! So I gave Mr. J a phone call and he walked me through the process, step by step. What a guy!

Monday, October 18, 2010

Monday, October 18, 2010

We started our lovely Monday afternoon off with the stamping of our homework (Periodic Table and Periodicity Webquest and the Alien Lab). Make sure Mrs. M stamps it if you were absent.

Make sure to grab the new sheets from the bin (Anatomy of the Periodic Table 1, 2, & 3; Metal Reactivity: Periodic Trends Lab all 4 sheets). Put all in your journals. We went over the Webquest and answered questions that were asked. We then transitioned into today's lesson: metals, nonmetals, and metalloids. We started off in our Metal, Nonmetal, Metalloid sheets, page 2. We filled out #3, classifying metals, nonmetals, and metalloids:

  • malleable
  • shiny
  • good conductors of electricity
  • crush (brittle)
  • dull
  • bad conductors of electricity
  • have properties of both metals and nonmetals
We continued onto our chart labeled with the elements A-G. We corrected a few mistakes in the conductivity column (element B and C DO NOT conduct electricity). Mrs. M then put the elements in a tray, and added HCl and CuCl2 to two samples of each. We then recorded the results. Here is the information you should add to your chart:
  • Elements F and G reacted with HCl, while the rest did not.
  • Elements A, D, F, and G reacted with CuCl2, while the rest did not.
After completing the chart, we moved on to the last portion of our lesson. Mrs. M showed us a video of the reactivity trends of metals in groups and periods. We filled out Part A while we watched the video. In the video, we saw reactions of the Alkali metals lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium when they were dropped into water. Here were our observations:
  • Li- floats, gives off Hydrogen gas, fizzes in water
  • Na- floats, gives off Hydrogen gas, fizzing is much more vigorous
  • K- gives off heat so hot that it lights the Hydrogen gas on fire creating a flame (same reaction as above except more vigorous)
  • Rb- same reaction, except more vigorous than K, Hydrogen caught on fire, more intense
  • Cs- most intense, "light show", breaks glass container that it was being tested in
After filling out the data from above, we continued onto Part B, as Mrs. M demonstrated. We filled out question 1 by describing what the metal samples looked like:
  • Mg- silver, shiny, thin strip
  • Al- silver, shiny, round pebble-like shape
Next, she lit a Bunsen burner, warned us about NOT looking directly at what she was about to do, and WEARING HER SAFETY GOGGLES, held a piece a Mg over the flame and caught the "ashes" in a container. The Mg gave off a bright light and ended quickly, leaving behind a chalky, white substance in the container. These "ashes" are the product MgO, made from the reaction of Mg and oxygen while burning.
We moved onto testing the next metal, Al. Mrs. M used Al this time instead of Mg and we saw a different reaction. The flame turned bright orange/red, and the "ashes" did not change much besides coming dull and a bit less malleable. These "ashes" are the produt of Al2O3, made from the reaction of Al and O2 while burning.
We answered the next question, Do the metals burn the same? Compare the two:
no, they do not burn the same. Mg had a product that was chalky and white, while Al had a product that was dull and less malleable than before.

This was all for today, as the bell cut us short.

  • WebAssigns (you're favorite)
  • finish Metal, Nonmetal, Metalloid pages

Wednesday, October 6, 2010

Orbital Diagrams

Class started with the stamping of yesterday's homework, worksheet page 9. Then, Mrs. Mandarino went over the homework. From there, we went right into today's lesson, orbital diagrams. She first explained what it was and how to do it. To help us understand better, she had us do the bottom of worksheet page 7, all of page 8, and the first three questions of page 10. Orbital diagrams are basically just electron configurations drawn out.

Here are some basic things about orbital diagrams:
  • Orbitals are expressed by using a box
  • Each orbital can hold 2 electrons
  • S orbitals have a max of 2 electrons       # of orbital box(es): 1
  • P orbitals have a max of 6 electrons      #of orbital box(es): 3
  • D orbitals have a max of 10 electrons   # of orbitals box(es):5
  • F orbitals have a max of 14 electrons    #of orbitals box(es): 7
For example, how about we do neon!

The arrow looking things are indicating the electrons. The heads of the arrows are going in different ways because "opposites attract". If they were going the same way, they would repel each other and the atom wouldn't stay together.

  • If this was written out in electron configuration, it would be: 1s22s22p6
  • When writing in electron configuration, the s orbitals can only go up to 2 and that same concept applies in the diagrams
  • The arrows represent electrons so there are only 2 for 1s and 2 for 2s, but in 2p, there are 6 arrows (just like the configuration)

The arrows in the diagram need to be drawn in a specific way though. The arrows can’t be drawn 2, then 2, then 2. They need to be drawn one by one. For example, carbon:
·      Notice how the in the 2p area, even though it was two electrons, they were drawn in 2 separate boxes
·      If there were 3 electrons, then the last box would have one arrow as well
·      What happens when there is an arrow in every box?
·      Then you go back to the beginning!

·      Like this:  

Home work: Do question 4 on page 10 (it goes onto page 11) webassigns (test is Friday!!

Eleanore Y

Tuesday, October 5, 2010

Electron Configuration

Today in Chemistry, we started off by getting worksheet pg.5 stamped and then Mrs. Mandarino went over the answers. We then finished up the notes on s, p, and d orbitals. Remember that s orbitals are spherical, p orbitals are dumb bell shaped, and d orbitals are a combination of 2 p orbitals. After that, we learned a new concept: Electron configuration. Here is an example of electron configuration

He 1s2

-He is the thing we are finding the electron configuration for.
-1 is the level
-S is the type of orbital
-The superscript 2 is the number of electrons.

To make things easier, we took our own individual periodic table and labeled the different types of levels and orbitals. This helps us to write electron configuration. You read it from left to write. Also, we learned that:

s orbitals can hold a maximum of 2 electrons,
p orbitals can hold a maximum of 6 electrons,
d orbitals can hold up to 10 electrons,
and f orbitals can hold a maximum of 14 electrons.

After learning about electron configuration, we practiced writing it. We worked on pg. 6 and 7. There are two ways of writing electron configuration. One is the long way like Ca=1s22s22p63s23p64s2. Writing all that can be very tedious so another way to write it is like this: Ca=[Ar] 4s2. This is the abbreviation. You put down the last noble gas before the element and then continue from there.

Homework for tonight is to read pg. 130-136 in the textbook, worksheet pg. 9, and to do web assign. Test is this Friday!
Today in class, we had some more papers to put into our notebooks. We had our Fireworks lab and our Atomic Structure pages 3 and 4 stamped in. Atomic Structure pages 3 and 4 were counted as extra credit. We checked out the fireworks lab and went over the Rutherford Simulation lab. While we did go through all the calculations in class, you're supposed to apply the data from your own lab to the equations we used. We also went through a couple more powerpoint pages which showed us the modern atomic model and introduced us to s, p, and d orbitals. Homework was reading from the homework sheet which should be in your notebook, WebAssign, and page 5 of the Atomic Theory pages.

Monday, October 4, 2010

Fireworks and atomic Theory

Friday, October 1, 2010

Dear, Class

Today we started class by stamping and going over the homework which was page 1 and 2. Then we had to rush through some notes so we could get onto our fireworks lab. I was expecting explosives in the fireworks lab, but there weren't any so that was a big let down. In the Lab we tested Li+, Na+, K+, Sr 2+, Cu 2+. We didn't test everything on the sheet because apparently it was to expensive to buy. To test what color each of those burned we dipped a metal rod in some water then into the salty looking chemicals then put the metal rod over the fire and watched what happened to the color of the fire. Each one produced a different color fire. At the end of the period Ms. Mando showed us three different chemicals and we have to guess what they are for our homework. Remember work on your chem think and webassigns. work book 3-4 due 2marow and finish the lab for 2morrow

Love, Dan b

Thursday, September 30, 2010

September 30 ChemThink in class

In the class of September 30 we met in the science computer lab. We worked on two ChemThink's. One was entitled Atomic structure, and the other Ions. Like always you log on and read the tutorial before doing the questions related to it to be able to answer them best. Below are some notes that I found helpful for the ChemThink questions.

Atomic Structure
  • Proton
  1. +1 charge
  2. Heavy mass
  3. Inside nucleus
  4. Determines identity of atom by the atomic number
  • Electron
  1. -1 charge
  2. Virtually 0 mass
  3. Outside of nucleus
  4. Responsible for reactivity
  5. Constantly in motion
  • Neutron
  1. 0 charge
  2. Heavy mass
  3. Inside nucleus
  4. Holds together nucleus
Atomic number=The number of protons found on the periodic table
Neutral atoms= Same number of electrons as protons

Ions- individual atoms or groups of atoms that have a charge
  1. Ions are formed when, at certain times, atoms gain or lose one or more electrons.
  2. (-) ions can only be formed by gaining electrons.
  3. (+) ions can only be formed by losing electrons.
  4. Protons are never gained or lost when ions are being formed.

Tuesday, September 28, 2010

Black Box Lab

Today as we walked into class we picked up 25 pieces of paper which we will be using for most of our new unit. However we did not use any of them. If you didn't finish the lab test retake then you had ten minutes to finish up but if you were done you began on the Black Box Lab.

In the black box lab, Mrs. M had set up 12 black obsertainers that each had it's own unique design on the inside. Each obsertainer had a metal ball bearing in it and you had to figure out what each obsertainer looked like on the inside by the moving it around and listening to how the ball bearing moved inside of it. After you had finished recording you results, we were told to start a work sheet we were giving about the scientists who discovered the atom and it's many purposes. You were supposed to have at least finished the section about Dalton by the end of the period.

The only homework for the night is the webassign which will be due at the end of the unit.

-Greer J.

Monday, September 27, 2010

Lab Test Take Two

    As we walked into class today we picked up four pages to put into our notebooks. The first two were all about Unit Two: Atomic Structure. It had the Unit 2 Objectives and Schedule on them. The second two pages were a "Black Box Lab" which we did not get to today. 

   After the class got settled Mrs. M handed back tests. The class average was around 83%, good job everybody! We went over the tests and handed them back to Mrs. M. You can come in and see them before finals if you would like. Other than that, they're Mrs. M's to keep. We were also given grade sheets today. All grades besides the lab test were on there.

   Our lab tests didn't turn out quite so well. In fact, we re-did the write up today in class. Nobody got a grade on the original sheet we handed in. Instead, we filled out a new packet using the calculations from our original lab. If you didn't finish in class today you should have put a star on your paper and you will be given about 10 minutes tomorrow to do it in class. Hopefully things go better this time!
  If you missed the Chem day on Friday Mrs. M will assign you problems to do from the book to make up for it. If you would rather look up the episode (helium footballs and catching a bullet in your teeth) online and take notes, that will also be accepted. 

-Molly C.-


Wednesday, September 22, 2010

To float or Not to float? Or sink less than 3 seconds

If an irregular object floats on water, we can immediately conclude that it is less dense than the water. Yesterday we had a lab where we must make an irregular object sink as slow as possible. It was a hard thing to do for we have to go through a calculation that most or some of us were having trouble with. Thank goodness our irregular object was sinking for 1.2 seconds. .2 longer than I predicted. I was amazed to what I have seen. Tomorrow we will have a Written Test. REMEMBER TO BRING YOUR JOURNAL TOMORROW. She will collect our journal and hand it out during or after class.

Chemistry Basics Review

Tuesday, September 21, 2010

When I first walked into the classroom today, Mrs. Mandarino began in the usual manner of stamping homework, and she began with the review in the journal, of course. Mrs. Mandarino demonstrated us the correct ways to draw molecular and pure compounds, even in the cases of before and after a chemical change. We went over physical and chemical changes, and we even reviewed a handy helping of density equations. The unit conversions took a while to get through, but it all managed to come together when we did sig figs and scientific notation. We even got through precise measurement. Overall, today was not the most interesting of days by far, but it really managed to help a lot of people who were struggling with certain types of problems. A simple review day, to say the least. But at the very last moments of class, the teacher described the contents of the written lab we had to do on Thursday. Apparently, we were each assigned a partner for a glass vial lab. We had to fill a glass vial with sufficient amounts of gravel in order to sink to the bottom slowly, but not float. And there is no homework, aside from studying for the big lab test tomorrow. Durrr!

Dragomir O.

Monday, September 20, 2010

Yesterday in class, the first thing that happened was Mrs. M doling out a healthy dose of admonishment for the neglect in lab hygiene and safety on the parts of periods 5 and 8.  Mrs. M then called us all up to the front of the room to stamp the labs we did on Friday.   I think that we then went over pages 16 and 17, but I'm not sure.   Mrs. M was handed out a review sheet for chapters 1 and 2, and passing back the quizzes that we took on some previous occasion.  We then discussed the upcoming "Sinker Project" that is to be carried out on Wednesday.  We will each be assigned one partner to work on this project.  A graduated cylinder, a vial, and some pebbles will be provided to each pairing, with the goal to made the vial sink as slowly as possible in water.  Bear in mind that water has a density of 1g/cm^3.  I think that we might have done some other things, and I'm not sure if any homework was assigned, but I sure hope there wasn't.

Thursday, September 16, 2010

9/16/10 Physical/Chemical Properties and Changes

In chemistry class today, we first got page 17 and the physical and chemical stations sheets to put inside our journals. Right after we finished taping in the sheets of papers that we had received, Mrs. M started on page 13 of our journals. We learned about substances and compounds and atoms. We also learned a way to memorize Diatomic elements: HONCl BrIF. Which means, H2, O2, N2, Cl2, Br2, I2, F2. After we moved on page 14 and we learned all about pure substances, pure substances are substances that only contain one kind of manner. Then we moved onto page 15. We learned how to right formulas and to draw out formulas of what the page told us to do, and right a description of it. After page 15, we took notes on Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Physical Changes and Chemical Changes.

Physical Properties
  • characteristics you can observe (descriptive)
  • use your senses
  1. color
  2. size
  3. shape
  4. texture
  5. state
  6. odor/smell
Chemical Properties
  • the way a substance will behave
  1. flammable
  2. combustible
Physical Change - do not permanently change the substance
  • tearing
  • crushing
  • bending
  • dissolving
  • state changes --->solid--->liquid--->gas
  • melting
Chemical Change - substance is permanently changed
  • digestion
  • burning
  • rusting
Evidence that chemical change has occured
  • color change
  • odor change
  • production of heat
  • production of gas
  • sound and light show

  • bonds break, atoms rearrange, new bonds form
The homework is to finish page 16 in your journal and do the webassign and chemthink

-Taso K

Wednesday, September 15, 2010

Scribe post Sept 15

Today in Chemistry Mrs. M had us go into the math lab and read the scribe post. When in the math labe we worked on signing into Chemthink, if you have not done so already. After creating a profile or singing into Chemthink Mrs. M had us read and take notes on a tutorial on atoms, molecules, compounds, and other basic units. We also learned the molecular and atomic structure of solids, liquids, and gas in the tutorial. To find this tutorial go on Chemthink, sign in, and on the left hand side there will be a box saying Tutorial. This tutorial is very, very helpful expecially when Mrs. M told us to take a ten question quiz, and if you get more than three wrong then you have to start over, which is also found on Chemthink. Despite it sounding very easy, in reality it was more than difficult for most people and they had to take the test many times. There is no limit on how many times you can take the test but if you keep failing she encouraged us to re-read the tutorial.

Atom: Most basic unit of matter
Molecule: A group fo atoms held by a chemical bond
Element: A substance made out of one type of atom
Compound: Two different types of atoms present in the same molecule
Solid: Atoms vibrate but are not free moving
Liquid:Atoms are free floating and are close together.
Gas: Very fast free flating atoms
(These are just general definitions, to learn more go to the tutorial on Chemthink)

More Conversion Factors...

Tuesday, September 14, 2010

Today we all started out the class by checking last nights homework which was page 12. Since most of the class was still a bit shaky on conversions we went over the rest of page 11 (which was homework due yesterday). Mrs. Mandarino had a few kids go up to the computer and solve a few after she went over one. Since the classes were shortened today, we did not have as much time to do much else. We did start page 13 in our journals. We defined what atoms, molecules, elements and compounds were.

The homework for tonight is Check page 12 on moodle and work on webassigns.

Max S.

Monday, September 13, 2010

Conversions and Dimensional Analysis

Monday September 13, 2010

We started off class today by going over the scribe post. We then took our quiz which was on metrics, sig figs, and density. There was an extra credit question on the quiz in which we were supposed to measure a note card and a post-it and read two graduated cylinders. If anyone was not able to finish the question Mrs. Mandarino will allow you to do it tomorrow while she is teaching the rest of the class. After finishing the quiz, we went over the homework which was page 11 from our journals. The homework was about unit conversion & dimensional analysis which was confusing for many of the students. We went over the first 6 questions from the homework and still need to complete the final 6 questions. In the example below we were working with mass, so we had to figure out which units could convert tons into kilograms.

Ex. Convert 0.00534 ton   to   kg
In order to convert tons to kilograms.
  • We had to find the different units that could allow us to convert tons to kilograms.
  • We knew by looking at the conversion chart that there are 2000 lb in every ton.
  • From there we saw that there are 453.6 g in every pound.
  • This allowed us to have this equation
    • 0.00534 ton  x  2000 lb  x   1 kg    
    •                           1 ton       2.205 lb
  • By looking at the equation we were able to see that the tons and pounds canceled out. This left us with only the kilogram as our single unit.
    • 0.00534 ton  x  2000 lb  x    1 kg         
    •                           1 ton       2.205 lb
  • Now all that was left to do was to multiply all the numerators and divide that by the product of the denominators.
    • (0.00534 x 2000 x 1) = 4.8435374
    •         (1 x 2.205)
  • Finally we knew that we had to change the final answer into 3 sig figs, because the initial amount of 0.00534 had 3 sig figs. The final answer was 4.84 kg

*Remember to show all your work in order to receive full credit.

Shivam P.

Worksheet page 12

Sunday, September 12, 2010

More Density and Conversion Factors

Friday , September 10, 2010

Today we started class by reading the scibe post.  We found that we needed to review density a bit more.  Therefore Mrs. M went over the homework really thoroughly.  We found that we have to read the questions carefully to determine what the question is and what is the given information. Sometimes it helps if we list out our information.
Mrs. M showed us how the density of a mehane bubble is less dense than air. Before it reached the ceiling, Matt lit it on fire like the the college students in the below picture:

** NOTICE THAT THEY ARE NOT USING PROPER LAB SAFETY. Can you see what they are doing wrong?
Next, we began conversion factors.  We saw that when we are changing or converting one unit into another unit, we must be careful to place the values in the appropriate spots so that we can cancel out the unit that is not wanted.  For example,  when converting 127.5 inches into meters, notice the placement of the units.

127.5 in   x    2.54 cm   x      1 m       =  3.24 m
                        1 in            100. cm

We will work on conversion factors on Monday as well.

Worksheet p.11
Study for quiz on Metrics, Sig Figs, and Density

Friday, September 10, 2010


Wednesday, September 8, 2010

  • Today we turned in our formal labs for the Alka Seltzer part 3.
  • We then continued our discussion on scientific notation and density.  On our homework, we saw that object 1 data was for a regular shaped object so we used length x width x height to determine the volume.  Object 2 was a irregular shaped object so the data reflected a volume determined by water displacement.
  • We then completed the first two sections of the density lab.  Below are the objects we were given:

  • Remembering what we learned in the homework, we used L x W x H to determine the volume of the regular shaped object.
  • We will finish the last part of the lab on Friday.
Continue working on webassigns.  Not many people have started - Do not wait until the last minute!
Finish worksheet p. 8

Wednesday, September 8, 2010

Sig. Figs., Scientific Notation, & Density

Tuesday, September 7, 2010
Today in chemistry, we again braved the confusing world of significant figures. We learned new rules for adding them together, multiplying them, subtracting them, and how could we forget dividing them? Then, after that we learned how to put numbers into scientific notation form. Many others, including myself, were very confused with this process! Mrs. M reminded us:

Just remember when zeros are not significant:
0.00367  these are place holders
400   there is no decimal point so the zeros are not significant

Ms. Mandarino reminded us before we left that the homework was number 2 on pages 5 and 6 and that we will being doing number 1 on page 6 tomorrow in class. She also reminded us that our formal lab write ups are due tomorrow and if you are not turning it in through google doc, you need to bring it in printed out. The ol’ fashion way!

Mike B.

Tuesday, September 7, 2010

Metrics and Significant Figures

Friday, September 3, 2010

Today in class we received pages 7,8 & 9 to add into our composition books and discussed the homework, pages 1 and 2 in our notebooks

The next thing we did in is learn the sig fig rules

ex. zeros between non-zero digits are aways significant 3.108 is 4 sig figs

we then learned rouding sig figs
 ex. rounding to 4 sig figs - 12,345,670 would be 1235000

Emily F.

Friday, September 3, 2010

Metric System and Technology Accounts

September 2, 2010

Today in class we covered a decent amount.

Mrs. Mandarino started class by explaining Moodle to enhance our knowledge regarding it. Please use this as our home base. This page contains all of the necessary information on notes, assignments, labs, calendars, and homework. It also provides us with the necessary links for webassign, chemthink, etc.

After, we took notes about the Metric System (SI), and learned how it exactly functions.

  • We learned that this is a base 10 metric system used all over the world.
  • We can add prefixes to the base units. See notes for proper prefixes.
  • We must measure correctly to get proper data. ie: always measure at the miniscus and always measure one value past the last marked value - make sure to notice the smallest markings on the lab equipment. This will improve accuracy and precision (significant digits).

Later on the projector we looked at graduated cylinders with liquid inside, and practiced measuring it, we also looked over the measurement lab which should now be finished.

In the final minutes of class we looked at how to sign in to WebAssign and ChemThink

Compliments of period 8

Safety and Lab Techniques

September 1, 2010
Today, we started off class by grabbing six half sheets of paper to tape into our composition notebooks. Then, as we all sat in our seats, Mrs. M read Grace's scribe and assigned the homework which was to finish the lab techniques and safety equipment half sheets.

After we did the beginning of class routine Mrs. Mandarino had us watch three different movies about lab safety, what to wear in the lab, what to do in case of an accident and proper behavior while conducting a lab. During the lab safety section, Mrs. Mandarino paused the movie occasionally to highlight the most important rules. While in the other sections, Mrs. M. paused the movie to share expierences she has had in the past being a student and a teacher.

Next, we went over the lab techniques sheet and Mrs. M showed us what each piece of lab equipment looked like that was on the sheet and what the purpose of each one was. These pieces of equipment were a thermometer, beaker, Bunsen burner, funnel, test tube, Erlenmeyer flask, ring stand and a graduated cylinder.

Finally, the last sheet we went over was the safety equipment. This sheet had a map of the classroom which included the lab tables and Mrs. M's desk. We had to label the fire extinguisher, main gas shut off, eye wash, fume hood, fire blanket, exits and the shower. As we filled the map out, Mrs. Mandarino showed where each one was in the classroom and what we were supposed to do with each one.

Meghan G

Monday, August 30, 2010

Alka Seltzer Day 3 and Formal Labs

                Today in Chemistry we did our usual routine of listening to the scribe and getting assigned our homework for tonight, (work on formal lab and read pages 20-25).  Today we did not add any new pages into our notebooks. 
                We also finished our Alka Seltzer labs.  We finished part 3 which was to create a hypothesis/ problem and try to prove it.  We identified the dependent, independent, and controlled variables in our experiments.  Our group changed the temperature of the water using heat, and ice.  This was our independent variable.
                Later we were told that we will be going to the computer lab on Thursday to begin our Lab Write-Ups with our partner.  We also learned how to format a well written lab write-up. This includes:
1.  A title
2.  Name, period, date
3.  Purpose: A brief statement about the reason why you’re doing this lab.
4.  Pre-Lab questions:  Where you answer any pre-lab questions, if there were any.
5.  Hypothesis: State you’re hypothesis.  Usually an if....then statement
6.  Procedure:  Describe you’re exact steps on how you performed your lab and number them.  “Should be able to read procedure and know exactly how to do lab”.  We should also get the same results.
7.  Date: any data you collected - to be put in a data table.
8.  Graph:  Create a graph explaining your data.  Ex.  time and temperature.  The x-axis is the independent variable and the y-axis is the dependent variable.
9.  Post-lab questions:  Where you answer any post-lab questions, if there were any.
10.  Conclusion:  Look back at purpose for your conclusion statement.
11.  Analysis of error:  Ask yourself “how certain are you?” and refer to accuracy.

Grace P.

Experimental Design & Alka Seltzer Lab

Friday 8/27
Today in chemistry, we took some notes on how to create valid experiments. (These notes can be found on moodle.) We learned the difference between indepenent, dependant, and controlled variables. We also began the alka-seltzer experiment. During part 2 of the experiment, we learned that the build up of pressure within the film canisters forced the top to pop off! We began to change the amount of water within the canister to see if that had an effect on the time it took for the lid to pop off.

Alka Seltzer Rocket After Reaction

Annika S.

Friday, August 27, 2010

Policy Wrap-up and Procedures

August 26

Today in Chemistry we came in and got settled, then we turned in our homework, and taped a few pages into our composition notebooks. Next, Mrs. M talked more about digital ethics. After that, we took a 25 question pretest, and to end the class period Mrs. M started introducing the Alka-Seltzer lab, and assigned us our homework. It was a really easy and relaxed Chemistry class.

Simone K

Thursday, August 26, 2010

First Day Policies and Tools

My scribe-

Today we walked into class and once we were settled in we got our assigned seats. Mrs Mandarino introduced herself and handed out papers. These papers included the materials we need to bring to class and grading scale. We learned how to use moodle on the net books. Mrs. Mandarino also talked about writing sketches. 'twas a lovely day.

Corey L.

Tuesday, August 24, 2010

Scribe List

Avraham K.     Meghan F.      Dania K.            Shivam P.      Jack H
Daniel B.        Emily F           Anastasios K.      Michael P      Eleanore Y

Mike B.         Meghan G.      Simone K.          Kaitlin S.

Greer J.          Corey L.         Maxwell S.        Grace P

Molly C          Michael J.       Dragomir O.      Annika S.

Christian F.     Se Hee K.       Kiva T.

Friday, August 6, 2010

Welcome Post

Let the fun begin!
Welcome!  You have sucessfully found our class blog.  This is a place to see what happens in class everyday.  It can help you review; ask a question that you didn't get a chance to ask in class; or find out what you missed if you have been absent.  Please feel free to share this blog with your parents.

Before you begin blogging, please view the video to learn how to become an author on our blog. Please be sure to choose an appropriate screen name.  This name should allow me to identify you while also maintaining your privacy.  Please do not use your last name!  Before you dive into blogging, please read this entire post.

How to become an author

What is a scribe post?
When we think of blogging, many times we think of posting ideas on facebook or twitter.  While we use blogging for social networking, it can also be used as a valuable educational tool.  Every day one student will be responsible for creating a post describing what went on in class that day.  These posts are called scribe posts and will be the bulk of our blog.  The person who makes the scribe post for the day will assign the scribe for the next post the following day in class.  Once you complete your post, please make sure to cross your name off the scribe list on the next post.

Labels are also known as tags.  They are important in keeping our blog organized.  They will also help me keep track of your contributions for your grade.  You must include the following 3 labels:
1.  Your name = please use your first name and last initial
2.  The unit we are studying = see moodle for appropriate unit names
3.  The type of post it is = Most will be "scribe" posts.  Later we will introduce the "on my mind" post.

Digital Ethics!
Remember, blogging is a very public arena.  Anything you post on the internet, will always be on the internet.  Even if you delete a post, it may remove it from the blog, but copies of the post may exist all over the internet.  Therefore, we must be very careful to respect your privacy and the privacy of other classmates by:
1.  Using only first names. 
2.  Never posting any pictures of ourselves.
3.  Never including information about activities in our own lives.
4.  Always using good judgement.

Blogging rules to live by!
  1. Blogspaces are classroom spaces.  Speech and actions that are inappropriate for class are also inappropriate for our blog.  Please remember to always be respectful.
  2. NEVER give out or record personal information on our blog.  Do not share anything that you do not want the world to know.
  3. Remember, our blog is a public space.  If you put it on the internet, chances are that it will remain on the internet for a very long time.  These posts may effect your future.  It might be possible for a future employer to discover things about you through thoughts you posted in your younger years.  Be sure to post thoughts that you are proud of.
  4. Never add a link to your post that you have not thoroughly read.  Make sure you want to be associated with the link before you add it to your post.
*** Please take a few minutes to view the following video!