Wednesday, October 20, 2010

scribe post for october the 21st

Today in the ancient study of chemistry and potions our professor began the class by demonstrating an experiment. She took a small chunk of (pronounce the British way) Aluminum, Magnesium and Calcium and placed them in the mystic substance known in some regions of Tibet as water. The Aluminum and Magnesium were boring and didn’t do anything yet the Calcium was nice and put on a show. It bubbled and oxidized the piece of calcium. After the pieces of metal were added to the water she added magic potion known as Phenolphthalein which would mutate the water and turn it a pinkish hue if a base was present. For all three metals the test was positive and a base was found. After we tested for a base we placed the three pieces of the same type of metals into the substance discovered by the voodoo men of thirteenth century Europe, HCL, or hydrochloric acid. The aluminum was once again boring and there were no visible changes however the magnesium bubbled and the calcium bubbled vigorously. We then once again placed the magic potion into the small trays containing the metals to test for the existence of a base and only Calcium was positive. The conclusion of the lab was that the dull metals that the king refused to where on his crown were more reactive. This could be told because the react with the air and tarnish where as the other metals do not

After the potions and magic display we went over the assignment that was due that day. Our professor went over the periodic table work sheet pages two and three. These pages can be found in the town market know as Moodle. The main points in the pages were that families of mystic elements are more closely related then periods, and that the electron configuration is what determines the group’s reactivity. After we finished going through that sheet we began our journey through the magical world of ionization energy. In short it is the amount of energy needed to remove one electron form one atom however the amount of energy needed is not constant. For example it takes very little energy to take an electron form an Alkali metal where as it takes a lot of energy to take an electron from a Nobel gas. If you need to know more about ionization energy travel through the wormhole and check out these websites

After we finished the sheet on ionization energy it was time to leave the mystic land of test tubes and Bunsen burners

The last announcement is that mole day will be celebrated in the east gym on Oct 22 at 6:02 am, if you go you will receive 6.02 points of extra credit and bring cans for the caned food drive

That is all the information this electronic message devise has to offer now go on your way and enjoy the wonderful world of chemistry

Tuesday, October 19, 2010

Periodic Trends

October 19, 2010
The day started off not in our usual setting, but rather in the math lab. We all took our seats and grabbed two sheets that were the Periodicity Lab. We then completed the second half of the notes about Periodic Trends. We learned that the atomic radius increases as you move down through the elements in each group. Also the atomic size decreases from left to right across a period. Another thing new was sheilding electrons (blockers). They are the electrons between necleus and outer electrons. The notes can be found on moodle. After we finished that we followed the lab and created two different graphs. One was compare Atomic number vs. Atomis Radius and the other was comparing Atomic number vs. Ionization Energy. Both were supposed to finished and printed and ready to bring them tomorrow for class. The homework was to do pages 1-3 and work on webassigns, and thanks to Kiva I had a little extra and do this because she was mad my rock paper scissor skills were better. It was another great day of chemistry.

Kaitlin Samuels

Before I depart from the scribe world, I would like to take a minute to send my thanks and recognition to Chris J. I was extremely baffled when I logged into moodle today. I had no idea what I was doing! So I gave Mr. J a phone call and he walked me through the process, step by step. What a guy!

Monday, October 18, 2010

Monday, October 18, 2010

We started our lovely Monday afternoon off with the stamping of our homework (Periodic Table and Periodicity Webquest and the Alien Lab). Make sure Mrs. M stamps it if you were absent.

Make sure to grab the new sheets from the bin (Anatomy of the Periodic Table 1, 2, & 3; Metal Reactivity: Periodic Trends Lab all 4 sheets). Put all in your journals. We went over the Webquest and answered questions that were asked. We then transitioned into today's lesson: metals, nonmetals, and metalloids. We started off in our Metal, Nonmetal, Metalloid sheets, page 2. We filled out #3, classifying metals, nonmetals, and metalloids:

  • malleable
  • shiny
  • good conductors of electricity
  • crush (brittle)
  • dull
  • bad conductors of electricity
  • have properties of both metals and nonmetals
We continued onto our chart labeled with the elements A-G. We corrected a few mistakes in the conductivity column (element B and C DO NOT conduct electricity). Mrs. M then put the elements in a tray, and added HCl and CuCl2 to two samples of each. We then recorded the results. Here is the information you should add to your chart:
  • Elements F and G reacted with HCl, while the rest did not.
  • Elements A, D, F, and G reacted with CuCl2, while the rest did not.
After completing the chart, we moved on to the last portion of our lesson. Mrs. M showed us a video of the reactivity trends of metals in groups and periods. We filled out Part A while we watched the video. In the video, we saw reactions of the Alkali metals lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium when they were dropped into water. Here were our observations:
  • Li- floats, gives off Hydrogen gas, fizzes in water
  • Na- floats, gives off Hydrogen gas, fizzing is much more vigorous
  • K- gives off heat so hot that it lights the Hydrogen gas on fire creating a flame (same reaction as above except more vigorous)
  • Rb- same reaction, except more vigorous than K, Hydrogen caught on fire, more intense
  • Cs- most intense, "light show", breaks glass container that it was being tested in
After filling out the data from above, we continued onto Part B, as Mrs. M demonstrated. We filled out question 1 by describing what the metal samples looked like:
  • Mg- silver, shiny, thin strip
  • Al- silver, shiny, round pebble-like shape
Next, she lit a Bunsen burner, warned us about NOT looking directly at what she was about to do, and WEARING HER SAFETY GOGGLES, held a piece a Mg over the flame and caught the "ashes" in a container. The Mg gave off a bright light and ended quickly, leaving behind a chalky, white substance in the container. These "ashes" are the product MgO, made from the reaction of Mg and oxygen while burning.
We moved onto testing the next metal, Al. Mrs. M used Al this time instead of Mg and we saw a different reaction. The flame turned bright orange/red, and the "ashes" did not change much besides coming dull and a bit less malleable. These "ashes" are the produt of Al2O3, made from the reaction of Al and O2 while burning.
We answered the next question, Do the metals burn the same? Compare the two:
no, they do not burn the same. Mg had a product that was chalky and white, while Al had a product that was dull and less malleable than before.

This was all for today, as the bell cut us short.

  • WebAssigns (you're favorite)
  • finish Metal, Nonmetal, Metalloid pages

Wednesday, October 6, 2010

Orbital Diagrams

Class started with the stamping of yesterday's homework, worksheet page 9. Then, Mrs. Mandarino went over the homework. From there, we went right into today's lesson, orbital diagrams. She first explained what it was and how to do it. To help us understand better, she had us do the bottom of worksheet page 7, all of page 8, and the first three questions of page 10. Orbital diagrams are basically just electron configurations drawn out.

Here are some basic things about orbital diagrams:
  • Orbitals are expressed by using a box
  • Each orbital can hold 2 electrons
  • S orbitals have a max of 2 electrons       # of orbital box(es): 1
  • P orbitals have a max of 6 electrons      #of orbital box(es): 3
  • D orbitals have a max of 10 electrons   # of orbitals box(es):5
  • F orbitals have a max of 14 electrons    #of orbitals box(es): 7
For example, how about we do neon!

The arrow looking things are indicating the electrons. The heads of the arrows are going in different ways because "opposites attract". If they were going the same way, they would repel each other and the atom wouldn't stay together.

  • If this was written out in electron configuration, it would be: 1s22s22p6
  • When writing in electron configuration, the s orbitals can only go up to 2 and that same concept applies in the diagrams
  • The arrows represent electrons so there are only 2 for 1s and 2 for 2s, but in 2p, there are 6 arrows (just like the configuration)

The arrows in the diagram need to be drawn in a specific way though. The arrows can’t be drawn 2, then 2, then 2. They need to be drawn one by one. For example, carbon:
·      Notice how the in the 2p area, even though it was two electrons, they were drawn in 2 separate boxes
·      If there were 3 electrons, then the last box would have one arrow as well
·      What happens when there is an arrow in every box?
·      Then you go back to the beginning!

·      Like this:  

Home work: Do question 4 on page 10 (it goes onto page 11) webassigns (test is Friday!!

Eleanore Y

Tuesday, October 5, 2010

Electron Configuration

Today in Chemistry, we started off by getting worksheet pg.5 stamped and then Mrs. Mandarino went over the answers. We then finished up the notes on s, p, and d orbitals. Remember that s orbitals are spherical, p orbitals are dumb bell shaped, and d orbitals are a combination of 2 p orbitals. After that, we learned a new concept: Electron configuration. Here is an example of electron configuration

He 1s2

-He is the thing we are finding the electron configuration for.
-1 is the level
-S is the type of orbital
-The superscript 2 is the number of electrons.

To make things easier, we took our own individual periodic table and labeled the different types of levels and orbitals. This helps us to write electron configuration. You read it from left to write. Also, we learned that:

s orbitals can hold a maximum of 2 electrons,
p orbitals can hold a maximum of 6 electrons,
d orbitals can hold up to 10 electrons,
and f orbitals can hold a maximum of 14 electrons.

After learning about electron configuration, we practiced writing it. We worked on pg. 6 and 7. There are two ways of writing electron configuration. One is the long way like Ca=1s22s22p63s23p64s2. Writing all that can be very tedious so another way to write it is like this: Ca=[Ar] 4s2. This is the abbreviation. You put down the last noble gas before the element and then continue from there.

Homework for tonight is to read pg. 130-136 in the textbook, worksheet pg. 9, and to do web assign. Test is this Friday!
Today in class, we had some more papers to put into our notebooks. We had our Fireworks lab and our Atomic Structure pages 3 and 4 stamped in. Atomic Structure pages 3 and 4 were counted as extra credit. We checked out the fireworks lab and went over the Rutherford Simulation lab. While we did go through all the calculations in class, you're supposed to apply the data from your own lab to the equations we used. We also went through a couple more powerpoint pages which showed us the modern atomic model and introduced us to s, p, and d orbitals. Homework was reading from the homework sheet which should be in your notebook, WebAssign, and page 5 of the Atomic Theory pages.

Monday, October 4, 2010

Fireworks and atomic Theory

Friday, October 1, 2010

Dear, Class

Today we started class by stamping and going over the homework which was page 1 and 2. Then we had to rush through some notes so we could get onto our fireworks lab. I was expecting explosives in the fireworks lab, but there weren't any so that was a big let down. In the Lab we tested Li+, Na+, K+, Sr 2+, Cu 2+. We didn't test everything on the sheet because apparently it was to expensive to buy. To test what color each of those burned we dipped a metal rod in some water then into the salty looking chemicals then put the metal rod over the fire and watched what happened to the color of the fire. Each one produced a different color fire. At the end of the period Ms. Mando showed us three different chemicals and we have to guess what they are for our homework. Remember work on your chem think and webassigns. work book 3-4 due 2marow and finish the lab for 2morrow

Love, Dan b